Beyond Culture (1976) by Edward T. Hall
In 1976, Hall developed the iceberg analogy of culture. If the culture of a society were like an iceberg, Hall reasoned, than there are some aspects visible, above the water, but there is a larger portion hidden beneath the surface.
The external, or conscious, part of culture is what we can see above the water line. This tip of the iceberg includes behaviors and some beliefs.
The internal, or subconscious, part of culture is below the surface of a society and includes beliefs, values and thought patterns that underlie behavior.
Hall suggests that the only way to learn the internal culture of others is to actively participate in their culture.
When one first enters a new culture, only the most overt behaviors are apparent. As one spends more time in that new culture, the underlying beliefs, values, and thought patterns that dictate that behavior will be uncovered.
What this model teaches us is that we cannot judge a new culture based only on what we see when we first enter it. We must take the time to get to know individuals from that culture and interact with them. Only by doing so can we uncover the values and beliefs that underlie the behavior of that society.
(Source: http://www.constantforeigner.com © 2010)